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Pentingna alat-alat mesin penghubung lima sumbu pikeun industri kapang

2021/06/12

Pentingna alat-alat mesin penghubung lima sumbu pikeun industri kapang

Dina taun-taun ayeuna, ékonomi industri sacara umum parantos gancang, sareng tanda-tanda transfer internasional anu gancangpabrik industry to China are obvious, but it has not yet shaken off the situation of low-grade products and weak international competitiveness. In addition to low labor costs, products made in China do not have competitive advantages in terms of quality, style, and technical content. At present, there is such a phenomenon in the domestic economic development that high-end products are produced by imported machinery and equipment. In addition to imports, those high-precision machinery and equipment may also be produced through imported equipment and machinery upstream. That is, in each production link, imported products are always a higher grade than domestic products. Take mobile phones as an example. Although the quality of some domestic mobile phones exceeds that of imported products, most of the cases are produced by imported molds. The most high-precision molds must be produced with the help of high-end imported CNC machining centers. The entire pabrik industry relies on imported equipment for a long time, leading to a vicious circle, which may bring about three results: First, it is always unable to obtain the latest and best technical equipment in the world. As a result, China's pabrik industry will always remain at a second-rate level. The second is that most of the value of the final product is acquired by developed countries. The third is the inability to master the core technology of the entire economic development, and the lifeline of the national economy is always in the hands of others.
Therefore, the author believes that China must catch up with or surpass developed countries in pabrik, and on the basis of vigorously developing its own CNC and mold industries, it must actively promote the application of high-end CNC equipment, including the appropriate import of advanced foreign CNC machining centers. Because high-end CNC machine tools and molds are at the forefront of the pabrik industry chain. The quality of mold products is largely controlled by CNC machining equipment. Five-axis linkage is the representative of high-end CNC. For a long time, Western industrialized countries headed by the United States have always regarded the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system as an important strategic material and implemented an export license system. Developing countries not only have difficulties in production and research and development, but also have great resistance in terms of introduction.
The five-axis linkage CNC machine tool is important because it can process mechanical parts with complex curved surfaces. It has unique advantages in solving impellers, blades, marine propellers, and large diesel crankshafts. Therefore, high-precision CNC machine tools have a pivotal influence on a country's military, aerospace, precision medical equipment, scientific research, precision instruments and other industries, and can be called the "soul of pabrik."
Modern CNC machine tools were first developed by developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and Germany. Therefore, from the current situation, the imported technology is relatively better than the domestic ones, but the quality of the products developed by some domestic enterprises is gradually catching up. On the basis of appropriate introduction of foreign advanced technology and equipment, pay attention to digestion and absorption, and steadily develop the country's high-end CNC industry. Blindly relying on imports will inevitably make China's pabrik industry and the entire national economy subject to others. But any kind of scientific and technological progress in human history has been developed on the shoulders of giants. Abandoning the existing cutting-edge science and technology in other countries is undoubtedly a kind of behind closed doors and arrogant thoughts.
Kusabab seueur tingkatan industri Tiongkok sareng harga tinggi mesin CNC high-enddiwakilan kuhubungan lima sumbu, perlu milarian bebeneran tina kanyataan dina industri sareng perusahaan khusus. Kanggo sababaraha produk anu meryogikeun akurasi pengolahan anu langkung handap, langkung hemat pikeun ngagunakeun alat-alat pamrosésan umum. Salaku conto, industri ékspor NdFeB Ningbo didorong ku strategi murah dumasar kana alat mesin Ningbo lokal sareng low-end lokal Ningbo. Dina industri kapang, salaku conto, produksi kapang cetakan sareng panggunaan alat mesin cnc tinggi pikeun casting perusahaan kapang penting pisan pikeun ningkatkeun kualitas produk kapang. Di industri sanés sapertos instrumen presisi, aerospace, sareng alat médis, ngenalkeun téknologi canggih sareng peralatan kedah didorong. Sababaraha perusahaan berkembang tiasa nyoko kana metode aliansi téknologi pikeun mésér sababaraha pakakas téknis anu nilai tinggi. Salaku conto, aya perusahaan Sanchuang di Beilun, Ningbo, anu mangrupikeun perusahaan jasa téknologi kapang kalayan alat-alat pangolah kelas dunya. Éta babarengan dibiayaan ku lima perusahaan diantarana Jiye, Autolamp, Huiwang, sareng Xinda. Tujuan umum pendirianna nyaéta nyayogikeun jasa khusus pikeun perusahaan kapang alit sareng sedeng di Beilun, ngirangan investasi berulang dina alat impor, sareng ngarengsekeun masalah teknologi tinggi pikeun industri kapang sadayana. Salaku conto, pusat mesin lima sumbu sareng téknologi canggih internasional dibanderol sakitar 10 juta yuan. Sacara umum, usaha leutik sareng sedeng henteu mampu nanggung investasi, sareng tingkat panggunaan peralatan henteu luhur. Ngaliwatan bentuk investasi gabungan, éta henteu ngan ukur ngajawab masalah ngolah perusahaan anu dibiayaan, tapi ogé ngalayanan perusahaan anu langkung alit sareng sedeng. Perusahaan nanem modal langkung ti 80 juta yuan dina fase kahiji pikeun mésér alat-alat pengolahan high-end asing. Dina waktos anu sasarengan, kalayan gaji taunan langkung ti 1 juta yuan kanggo nyewa ahli asing pikeun bimbingan téknis. Pamaréntah daérah ogé parantos masihan subsidi anu tangtu.
In short, the promotion and application of CNC machinery and equipment diwakilan ku five-axis linkage in the high-end pabrik industry is of great significance for improving the level of China's pabrik industry, promoting enterprise technological progress, and product upgrading. Not only should enterprises with economic strength and strategic vision be encouraged to actively transform their own technical equipment, governments at all levels should also guide them correctly and give enterprises certain policy support.
Trend Pangwangunan Pusat sumbu Mesin Kacepetan Lima sumbu
In the past ten years, due to the continuous advancement of tools, drives, control and machine tools, high-speed machining and high-efficiency machining, especially high-speed hard milling, have been widely used and promoted in the mold pabrik industry. Many occasions have been replaced by high-speed hard milling. Through high-speed hard milling, the comprehensive processing of the mold blanks under one clamping not only greatly improves the processing accuracy and surface quality of the mold, greatly reduces the processing time, but also simplifies the production process, thereby significantly shortening the mold pabrik Cycle, reducing mold production costs.
The continuous improvement of the working performance of high-speed machining centers is an important prerequisite for the mold pabrik industry to process molds with high efficiency and high precision. In recent years, driven by drive technology, many different types of high-speed machining centers with innovative structures and excellent performance have emerged. The three-axis high-speed machining center that appeared in the middle and late 1990s (such as the HSM700 high-speed machining center launched by the Swiss Mikron company at the end of 1996) has now been developed into a five-axis high-speed machining center. In terms of drive mode, it has developed from linear motion (X/Y/Z axis) servo motor and ball screw drive to the current linear motor drive. The rotary motion (A and C axis) adopts a direct drive torque motor. Some companies have developed the machining center into a five-axis machining center with direct drive through linear motors and torque motors. Significantly improve the stroke speed, dynamic performance and positioning accuracy of the machining center.
Fitur strukturna sareng kaunggulan pusat mesin gancang-gancang
Pusat mesin gancang-gancang anu dianggo pikeun ngolah kapang, fitur struktural anu umum nyaéta panggunaan struktur gantry frame kanggo ningkatkeun kaku alat alatna sareng ngamangpaatkeun pinuh rohangan di daérah pamrosésan. Bahan ranjang mesin kalolobaanana beton polimér. Kusabab bahan ieu ngagaduhan performa anu langkung hadé sareng konduktivitas termal anu langkung handap, éta nguntungkeun pikeun ningkatkeun akurasi pengolahan kapang.
Ayeuna, pusat mesin sumbu lima tiasa dasarna dibagi kana dua jinis struktur numutkeun konfigurasi sumbu koordinat. Hiji mangrupikeun struktur anu mana tilu sumbu linier (X / Y / Z) dianggo pikeun gerakan pakakas sareng dua sumbu puteran tambahan (A sareng C) dianggo pikeun muter sareng ngayunkeun bahan padamel. Jinis pusat mesin gancang ieu, sapertos RXP500DS / RXP800DS ti Perusahaan Jerman Röder, GS1000 / 5-T ti Perusahaan Alzmetall Jérman, HSM400U / HSM600U Swiss Mikro sareng XSM400U / XSM600U disebat pusat mesin gancang-gancang, sareng Jérman Hermle's C30U / C40U / C50U, sareng anu sanésna mangrupikeun struktur anu salah sahiji tina lima sumbu koordinat (A) disetél dina sirah spindle. Sirah spindle ngawangun garpu sadar ayunna alat spindle, sareng sirah spindle ayun ogé tiasa dijepit pageuh janten Posisi dina posisi naon waé dina kisaran sudut ayunan. Jinis alat mesin ieu kalebet DMC75V linier / DMC105V linier ti DMG, Jérman, HPM1850U ti Mikro, sareng mesin panggilingan kecepatan tinggi GAMMA605 / 1200 ti Rolf Wisser, Jérman. Sababaraha alat mesin gaduh sumbu ayun sareng sumbu puteran disetél dina sirah spindle, sapertos pusat panggilingan G996V / BSH / 5A tingkat luhur Parat Jérman sareng lima poros atanapi mesin poros gantry genep sumbu Jérman Edel.
Harga pusat mesin kecepatan tinggi lima sumbu jauh langkung luhur tibatan pusat mesin tilu sumbu. Numutkeun perbandingan harga antara pusat mesin lima sumbu séri DMC75V sareng pusat mesin sumbu tilu, harga pusat mesin lima sumbu sakitar 50% langkung luhur tibatan pusat mesin tilu sumbu. Sanaos harga pusat sumbu mesin kecepatan tinggi lima sumbu tinggi, alat mesin tinggi-tungtung ieu cocog pisan pikeun cetakan mesin kalayan bentuk geometri anu rumit. Nalika pusat mesin sumbu lima ngolah rongga anu langkung jero sareng langkung steeper, rotasi tambahan sareng ayunan bahan damel atanapi sirah spindle tiasa nyiptakeun kaayaan prosés anu pangsaéna pikeun pamrosésan pabrik tungtung, sareng hindarkeun alat motong, wadah alat, sareng témbok rongga. Tabrakan kajantenan, ngirangan alat-alat nalika mesin sareng résiko karuksakan alat, janten ngabantosan ningkatkeun kualitas permukaan kapang, épisiensi ngolah sareng katahanan alat. Nalika mésér pusat mesin, naha milih pusat mesin tilu sumbu atanapi pusat mesin lima sumbu kedah ditangtoskeun numutkeun ka rumit sareng akurasi géométer rohangan kapang.
Tina prosés inovasi kontinyu di pusat mesin gancang-gancang, tiasa ditingali yén ngamangpaatkeun pencapaian paling anyar dina bidang téhnik ayeuna, khususna prestasi pangénggalna dina téknologi drive sareng téknologi kontrol, mangrupikeun konci pikeun teras-terasan ningkatkeun kagancangan kinerja, ciri dinamis sareng akurasi mesin tina pusat mesin. .
spindle listrik
Spindle listrik gancang-gancang mangrupikeun komponén inti pusat mesin gancang-gancang. Dinamesin tinafree-form surfaces and complex contours of molds, end mills with a smaller diameter of 2-12mm are often used. When machining electrodes for electrical discharge mesin tinacopper or graphite materials, high cutting speeds are required. Therefore, electric The spindle must have a high speed. At present, most of the spindle speeds of machining centers are between 18,000 and 42,000 r/min. The high-speed machining center XSM400U/XSM600U of Mikro in Switzerland has a spindle speed of 54,000 r/min. For the micro milling of the mold (the diameter of the milling cutter is generally 0.1 to 2 mm), a higher speed is required. For example, the five-axis high-precision milling machine from Kugler, Germany, has a maximum spindle speed of 160,000 r/min (using air bearings). Such a high speed can reach 150m/min when a 0.3mm diameter milling cutter is used to process steel molds. Cutting speed. At present, the German Fraunhofer Institute of Production Technology is developing a spindle supported by an air bearing with a speed of 300,000 r/min.
Nalika ngolah kapang, teras-terasan nganggo kecepatan tinggi, sareng panas anu dihasilkeun ku kagancangan sareng geter anu tiasa lumangsung nalika motong mangrupikeun hal anu penting anu mangaruhan akurasi pengolahan kapang. Dina urutan pikeun mastikeun stabilitas spindle listrik-gancang, sénsor pikeun ngukur suhu, kapindahan sareng geter dipasang dina spindle pikeun ngawas naékna suhu, kapindahan aksial sareng geter motor, bantalan sareng spindle. Ieu nyayogikeun data koréksi pikeun sistem CNC tina pusat mesin gancang-gancang pikeun ngarobih kacepetan spindle sareng tingkat feed sareng ngaoptimalkeun parameter pamrosésan. Nalika spindle ngahasilkeun kapindahan aksial, éta tiasa dibales ku koreksi nol titik atanapi koréksi lintasan.
Motor Linear
Ayeuna, kaseueuran pusat mesin gancang-gancang atanapi mesin panggilingan anu dianggo pikeun ngolah kapang masih nganggo motor servo sareng sekrup bola pikeun nyetir sumbu koordinat linier, tapi sababaraha pusat mesin parantos ngadopsi motor linier, sapertos RXP500DS / RXP800DS high- mesin panggilingan gancang sareng pusat mesin mesin kecepatan tinggi linier Deji Maâ € ™ s (akselerasi sumbu na ngahontal 2g sareng kecepatan stroke gancang ngahontal 90m / mnt). Kusabab drive linier ieu ngaleungitkeun unsur transmisi anu ngarobah gerak rotary kana gerak linier, éta tiasa sacara signifikan ningkatkeun kinerja dinamis, speed obah sareng akurasi pengolahan batang.
Ngagunakeun alat mesin linier anu tiasa disetir sacara signifikan tiasa ningkatkeun produktivitas. Salaku conto, nalika éléktroda mesin pikeun mesin debit listrik, waktos mesin dikurangan ku 50% dibandingkeun sareng mesin pengilingan kecepatan tinggi tradisional.
Motor linier tiasa sacara signifikan ningkatkeun kinerja dinamis alat-alat mesin gancang-gancang. Kusabab kaseueuran kapang anu permukaanna melengkung tilu diménsi, nalika alatna ngolah permukaan anu melengkung, sumbu alatna kedah dierem sareng digancangan teras-terasan. Ngan ku akselerasi sumbu anu langkung luhur tiasa dipastikeun yén kontur anu dipasihkeun tiasa dilacak kalayan feed konstan per huntu dina jalur lintasan anu langkung pondok dina laju lintasan anu luhur pisan. Upami radius lengkungan profil permukaan melengkung langkung alit sareng tingkat pakan langkung luhur, maka akselerasi sumbu anu diperyogikeun langkung luhur. Ku alatan éta, akselerasi sumbu alat mesin mangaruhan pisan kana akurasi mesin kapang sareng katahanan alatna.
Motor torsi
Di pusat mesin gancang-gancang, ayunan méja puteran sareng ayunan sareng rotasi sirah spindle bentuk garpu parantos seueur dilaksanakeun ku motor torsi. Motor torsi mangrupikeun jenis motor sinkron. Rotor na langsung dilereskeun dina bagian anu bakal disetir, janten teu aya unsur transmisi mékanis. Mangrupikeun alat penggerak langsung sapertos motor linier. Akselerasi sudut anu tiasa dihontal ku motor torsi nyaéta 6 kali langkung luhur tibatan drive gigi cacing tradisional, sareng akselerasi tiasa ngahontal 3g nalika ngayunkeun sirah spindle anu bentukna garpu. Kusabab motor torsi tiasa ngahontal statis anu luhur pisan sareng kakuitas beban anu dinamis, akurasi sareng posisi réputasi sumbu puteran sareng sumbu ayun ningkat.
Ayeuna, sababaraha pusat mesin gancang-gancang pabrik parantos ngadopsi motor linier sareng motor torsi pikeun nyetir sumbu linier (X / Y / Z) sareng sumbu ayunan puteran (C sareng A) masing-masing. Sapertos RXP500DS / RXP800DS R Xiaoer, DMC75V linier sareng Edel's CyPort mesin panggilingan gantry lima sumbu.
Kedah disebatkeun yén gabungan sumbu linier langsung-disetir sareng sumbu puteran langsung-disetir ngajadikeun sadaya sumbu gerak alat mesin gaduh kinerja dinamis tinggi na karakteristik pangaturan, ku kituna pikeun bebas prosés kapang pikeun speed tinggi, presisi tinggi sareng kualitas permukaan anu luhur. Permukaan melengkung nyayogikeun kaayaan anu pangsaéna.
Sistem Kontrol
Sistem kontrol CNC mangrupikeun bagian penting tina pusat mesin gancang-gancang, éta nunjukkeun kagancangan, presisi sareng kualitas permukaan ngolah alat mesin dugi ka seueur. Ku alatan éta, pikeun pakakas mesin gancang-gancang anu ngolah permukaan bentuk bébas cetakan, kinerja sistem kontrol numerik penting pisan.
Nalika masangkeun permukaan-bentuk bébas presisi tinggi, lintasan alat diwangun ku bagian mikro tina garis lempeng sareng busur nyiptakeun program bagian anu gedé. Aliran data ieu kedah disimpen sareng diolah ku sistem kendali alat mesin. Kusabab kitu, panjang waktos pamrosésan bagéan program nangtoskeun sistem pangendali CNC Indikator penting pikeun épisiénsi kerja. Ayeuna, waktos pamrosésan blok sistem kontrol CNC luhur-tungtungna umumna tiasa ngahontal 0,5ms (sapertos sistem Heidenhain's ltNC530 CNC), sedengkeun waktos pengolahan blok sistem CNC masing-masing parantos disingget janten 0.2~0.4ms.
The modern CNC numerical control system applied to high-speed mesin tinamolds should not only have the short program processing time necessary to ensure high-speed feed speed, but also have Nurbs and spline interpolation functions, and can work with nanometer resolution. In order to obtain high machining accuracy and surface quality in the case of high-speed machining.
Ayeuna, sistem CNC high-end ogé tiasa dihubungkeun sareng sistem CAD / CAM pabrik anu béda, sareng data dikirimkeun tina sistem CAD / CAM kana sistem kontrol ngalangkungan Ethernet kalayan gancang. Integrasi CAD / CAM kana sistem kontrol tiasa dugi ka ngaktipkeun pamrosésan kontur kompléks kapang pikeun kéngingkeun hasil anu saé, sareng masihan kontribusi anu penting pisan pikeun pondok waktos penyesuaian sareng waktos pemrograman.